In 2007, health insurance reform legislation (No…Not Obamacare!) was passed in Germany. It is now the law that citizens must obtain basic hospitalization coverage along with several other benefits including outpatient care. Maternity is one of the “essential benefits” also required.
In early 2015, more reform legislation was passed to reduce consumer costs. So..back to your question…You can purchase government-provided coverage (GKV) or buy a plan from a private insurer (PKV). You can also elect a hybrid combination of both.
If you have a high household income, private coverage is the likely result. Owning your personal plan will allow you to better customize the benefits you want. For example, you may not need a low deductible if you have no health issues. Or, if you take an expensive medication, you can choose a plan with lower drug out-of-pocket expenses.